The concept paper highlights options to be considered by ERETO stakeholders, to decide on the way forward in terms of strengthening institutional arrangements for sustainable development of pastoral people of Ngorongoro District. The paper also opens the discussion on identifying strategic options to further improve policy dialogue for sustainable pastoral livelihoods. Background information is presented on the situation of pastoralist people in Ngorongoro generally and which justified the formation of ERETO project in 1998. The paper underscores that although many good lessons have been recorded in both phases of the ERETO project, issues related to conservation and tourism on the one hand and the manner in which pastoralist devolvement is dealt with on the other hand, will continue to be a challenge. Seeking a true balance between conservation and development issues in Ngorongoro will remain a very important issue for the future of Ngorongoro.