Pastoralism is the main livelihood activity of the people of Ngorongoro District, and support to pastoralism is key to sustainable development in the District. However, pastoralist production is not being supported at present by either the Ngorongoro District Council (NDC) or Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority (NCAA). The most viable way for Ereto II to provide support is to use a two pronged approach, to build capacity at both the NDC level and at the grass-roots level. However, the main focus of the project should be at grass-roots level as this is more likely to produce results. To this end, Ereto II should build capacity of civil society and CBOs to engage with development at community level, and to demand accountability at all levels.