This consultancy was commissioned jointly by Ereto II Ngorongoro Pastoralist Project and Ngorongoro District Local Government and managed by Ngorongoro NGO Network. The report focuses on resource-based conflicts in Ngorongoro district, analyzing them with reference to pastoralism, i.e. conflicts arising from conservation versus pastoralism, natural resource-based investments versus pastoralism, farming versus pastoralism, and intra-pastoral conflicts. The causes, parties, and manifestations of conflict are described. Policies and laws for the management of land, natural resources, conservation and tourism are shown to contribute to the prevalence of conflicts in the district. Recommendations are proposed on strategies for addressing conflicts, with emphasis on approaches that involve collaboration between different levels of government (local, regional and national) with other players including civil society and traditional leaders, to be implemented in a district wide conflict management and peace-building strategy.