The report identifies institutions and organisations in Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA) that are key players in the socio and economic development of the pastoralist residents of the area. The main institutions in the NCA are the NCAA (Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority), the PC (Pastoralist Council) and the Ilaigwanak (customary leadership). The project instituted Ewoloto (restocking) and Water Committees are seen as emerging legitimate players. Local people analyse the role of the institutions in the light of their own interests, and based on this, see the ewoloto and water committees as the only institutions truly representative of the people and as being able to advance the interests of the people. The Ilaigwanak are seen as credible and respected. As Ereto is a bilateral agreement, it has a precarious role to play in supporting residents' rights; however the project should not shy away from addressing basic governance problems that impact on the capacity of NCA residents to control their own development. The local level Water and Ewoloto Committees, including as they do the Ilaigwanak, offer a significant option for phase two of Ereto support. Ereto II should strengthen the capacity of these institutions to ensure sustainability of project interventions. In addition, Ereto II should encourage pastoralist engagement in policy dialogue, so that pastoralists increasingly influence policies at all levels in support of their livelihoods.