Tanzania is undergoing a rapid pace of policy change. The authors provide an in-depth analysis of the policies and laws and the impact of these on pastoralism and agro-pastoralism. Generally, government is producing policies and laws aimed at changing pastoralist livestock production systems to promote sedentary livestock production with exotic breeds. The policies and laws have far reaching consequences for pastoralist livelihoods, the management of the environment, land use and land rights. One focus of these policies and laws is to restrict mobility. Another related major issue is the encroachment of state and private interests on pastoralist land, and the ever increasing loss of pastoralists land to these interests. It is important for pastoralist civil society to act to ensure favourable policies for pastoralists.