An overview of pastoralism in Tanzania and the existing policy fraework sets the scene. This is followed by a closer look at pastoralism as practiced in Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA), and the constraints to production faced by pastoralists living in NCA. The first phase of Ereto-Ngorongoro Pastoralist Project is described in detail, and the key lessons learned from this initiative are identified. The policy implications of the lessons from Ereto are presented, including identifying ways of addressing pastoralist poverty, the significance of integrating water development and range management, and the need for using a holistic livelihoods approach when developing supportive pastoralist policies.